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   THEORY SECTION 1 
Road Signage
More Common Road Signs
Warning Signs
More Warning Signs
Motorway Signs and Others
Manual & Garda Signals
Road lines & Traffic Lights
 
    THEORY SECTION 2
Being Considerate & Alert
Road Observation
Judgement & Perception
Different Driving Conditions
Driving Dangers & Risks
Road Features
Essential Paperwork
 
    THEORY SECTION 3
Accidents & Emergencies
Safety in Carrying Loads
Vehicle Technical Safety
Enironmental Concerns
Exiting your Vehicle
Vehicle Safety Equipment
Road Regulations
 
 

DRIVING IN DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

CLEARANCE AND SAFE DISTANCE

Does a wet road surface have an effect on your vehicle's braking ability?
It will double the stopping distance, compared to dry road conditions.
If you are driving uphill, behind a slow vehicle, what should you do?
You should remain behind at a safe distance, until it is possible to safely overtake the vehicle.

After you have successfully overtaken another vehicle, what should you do?
You should make sure that you are well past the other vehicle before carefully moving back into the left-lane.

What could happen if you move in too soon, after overtaking another vehicle?
There could be a serious collision between the two vehicles.
If you are overtaking parked vehicles, what action should you take?
You should ensure that there is sufficient space (clearance) between your vehicle and the parked vehicles.
If you think that the road might be icy, what distance should you expect to be able to stop in?
The stopping distance in icy conditions is at least 3-4 times the stopping distance of normal conditions. So adjust your speed and the distance from the vehicle ahead, so that you will be able to safely stop within the clear distance ahead. Remember that stopping too quickly and braking too hard in icy conditions will cause the car to skid, possibly with devastating consequences.

Under normal circumstances, what distance (clearance) should exist between moving vehicles and parked vehicles?
The width of a vehicle's door.

In dry road conditions, what gap per mph (miles per hours) should you leave between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead?
The recommended gap in dry conditions is approximately 1 metre (3.5 feet) for every mph. (eg so if you driving at 60 mph in dry conditions, you should maintain a gap of 60 metres between your car, and the vehicle ahead).
If you are riding a motorcycle, and would like to overtake the car ahead of you, what should you do?
You should wait until a suitable opportunity arises, and then overtake carefully.

 

ROADHOLDING

 

In conditions of heavy rain, why does it take longer to stop your vehicle?
The reason is that your tyres will have less road-grip in wet conditions.
If there is a film of water between your vehicle's tyres and the road surface, what happens?
Your road-grip is dramatically reduced, so steering and braking become far less effective.
When there are loose chippings on the road, what action should you take?
You should reduce your speed, and ensure that there is greater clearance between your vehicle and other road-users, until you have gone past the road-works.
What should you do if there is spilled diesel on the road surface?
You should drive carefully, not accelerating or decelerating quickly, as the road will be extremely slippery. Don't change your speed quickly, as your car could enter into a skid.
If you are driving in slippery road conditions, what should you do?
You should use very gentle acceleration and braking, and maintain a reduced speed.
In slippery conditions, should tractor-drivers drive with the left-hand wheels on the grassy margins of the road?
No, they should not!

Why is it necessary to drive a tractor at reduced speed, on uneven road surfaces?
It's necessary to do so, in order to avoid severe bouncing.

If you are driving downhill on either snow or ice, what shoud you do?
You should brake very gently to keep your speed down, and use a lower gear.

How does driving at higher speeds affect your road-holding?
Driving at higher speeds reduces the vehicle's road-holding ability, so you are at much greater risk of losing control of your vehicle.

Should the handbrake be used to stop your vehicle?
No. (except in very rare circumstances where your foot-brake has gone into complete failure)

Applying the handbrake whilst moving at speed, could have what effect?
The back wheels of your vehicle could completely lock up, leading to a devastating skid.

 

BRAKING AND STOPPING DISTANCE

 

What is the normal stopping distance of a car moving at 30 mph, in dry road conditions?
It is approximately 23 metres.

 

What is the normal stopping distance of a car moving at 30 mph, in wet road conditions?
It is approximately 30 metres.

 

What is the usual stopping distance of a car moving at 60 mph, in dry road conditions?
It is 72 metres approximately.

If a car is moving at 60 mph in wet road conditions, what is the normal stopping distance of the vehicle?
It is approximately 124 metres.

What dangers could arise if you need to brake suddenly?
It could result in the vehicle behind crashing into the back of your vehicle.

Which of these doesn't affect braking distance:
1. the power of your engine
2. the weight and speed of your vehicle
3. the road conditions and tyres of your vehicle.

The answer is 1, the power of your engine doesn't affect braking distance.
If two vehicles, moving at 50 mph, have a head-on collision, what is the combined speed at the time of collision.
The combined speed is 100 mph.
(Note: this is also known as the relative speed of the collision; of course it is also called an absolute disaster, as the consequences of a head-on collision are horrendous. No matter how many reinforcing bars or airbags the car has, there will be usually be no survivors in a head-on collision at 50 mph. The forces at impact are so great, the bonnet of one car will penetrate the other car as far as the rear seats. Drive carefully, and don't speed.).
One method of judging what is a safe distance to maintain between your vehicle, and the vehicle ahead is to:
Ensure that there is a 2 second gap at the very least, between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead passing any given point along the route.
(ie you would arrive at any given point 2 seconds after the driver ahead)
If your vehicle is carrying a load (eg passengers), what effect will there be on the cars ability to brake?
It will increase the distance needed to stop or brake the vehicle.
If two vehicles moving at 40 mph have a head-on collision, what is the combined speed at impact?
The combined speed is 80 mph.

If two vehicles moving at 60 mph have a head-on collision, what is the combined speed at impact?
The combined speed is 120 mph.

Towing a loaded trailer has what effect on your vehicle's stopping ability?
It will significantly increase your vehicle's stopping distance.

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